Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in one part of the body. Most cancers originate from cells that are not cancerous.
Cancer screening can detect cancer earlier when a cure is more likely. Specialist screenings can find cancers before they cause symptoms and spread to other parts of the body. Screening tests are medical tests that can detect cancer early if it is easier to treat.
There are many different types of cancer. Cancer cells grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor or neoplasm. Through cancer screening, cancers can be detected early and improve the likelihood of a cure.
Common cancers that can be detected early through regular screening include:
- Breast cancer
- Cervical cancer
- Prostate cancer
- Oral cancer
- Skin cancer
- Colon cancer
Breast cancer screening
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It is also one of the leading causes of death among women. There are many ways to prevent breast cancer, such as mammograms and breast self-examination.
Mammography is a preventive examination that uses a low-dose X-ray to see if there are any suspicious spots in the breast tissue or changes in the breast. Thanks to mammography, the doctor can detect cancer much earlier, long before it could be felt or seen by a doctor or patient. In Germany, women between the ages of 50 and 69 are entitled to a mammogram within two years.
Breast self-examinations are recommended for women from the age of 30 and continue later in addition to the biennial mammogram. This is important because over 80% of all breast tumors were discovered by the patient herself. The breasts are examined manually every month to detect changes or abnormalities at an early stage. Each breast is systematically palpated for nodules. Instructions on how to proceed can easily be found on the net.
Cervical cancer screening
Cervical cancer screening is the best way to detect and prevent cervical cancer. It is performed by the gynecologist and should be done at fixed intervals. Women in Germany are entitled to one cervical cancer screening per year.
In addition to the anamnesis (especially the questioning after bleeding and discharge), a Pap test is also performed. This is a cytological smear in which cell samples are taken from the cervix and examined with a microscope for abnormalities.
Prostate cancer screening
Fortunately, there are many resources available to educate people about the importance of prostate screening, such as government websites, books, brochures, and instructional videos on the Internet. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and can be detected very early by means of various methods of early detection.
The first remedy is the anamnesis. Prostate cancer is already suspected if a patient of advanced age has difficulty urinating and urinary incontinence.
During the palpation examination, the doctor feels the prostate through the rectum to detect pathological changes. In Germany, this examination is available to men aged 45 and over as an annual check-up.
At the latest when there are abnormalities in anamnesis and palpation, it is time to carry out a prostate screening with laboratory examination. Prostate screening tests for elevated PSA (prostate-specific antigen) levels in the blood.
Oral cancer screening
Oral cancer screening is the process of detecting cancer in the mouth by looking for signs and symptoms.
It is important to note that oral cancer screening does not replace a visit to the dentist. It is a complementary examination that can also be done during a routine visit to the dentist.
The primary goal of oral cancer screening is to identify lesions or tumors in the mouth before they become oral cancer, which is more difficult to treat.
Skin cancer screening
Skin cancer detection is an important part of skin health. This can be done during a skin cancer screening by a dermatologist or other healthcare professional.
The best way to prevent skin cancer is to avoid exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and other sources, such as solariums, and to wear protective clothing, hats, and sunglasses outdoors.
Colon cancer screening
Colonoscopy is a procedure that allows doctors to look at the inside of the colon, rectum, and rectum. Colonoscopy can diagnose and remove polyps (small growths) that could become cancerous.
There are risks associated with colonoscopy, such as the risk of intestinal perforation and bleeding. There are also risks associated with sedation or anesthesia, such as reactions to medication or an increased risk of heart attack or stroke. Some people may experience complications during or after colonoscopy.
The benefits of colonoscopy include early detection and prevention of colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy can also be used to diagnose other conditions in the digestive tract, such as inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis.